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Powerful explosive eruptions in March and April 1982 removed the lava dome and replaced it with a 1-km-wide crater. A blocky lava dome produced during eruptions from 1972 to 1985, lies within the summit crater of Merapi volcano in central Java. Incandescent rockfalls accompanying slow growth of the summit lava dome descend from beneath a cloudcap covering the summit of Merapi volcano in this 1993 nighttime view.

A small spine appears on the right in this July 4, 1986 photo, which was taken during a period of inactivity prior to destruction of the dome on October 10, 1986. Periodic collapse of Merapi's lava dome has produced pyroclastic flows down the western and southern flanks that have devastated populated areas and agricultural lands.

Stratovolcanoes Shield Volcanoes Calderas Craters Fissure Vents Pyroclastic Cones Lava Domes Pyroclastic Fall Pyroclastic Flows Magma meets Water Submarine Eruptions Lava Flows Lahars (mud flows) Volcanic Landslides Geothermal Activity Volcano Monitoring Volcanoes and Humans Scoria Cone Videos Pyroclastic Fall Videos Lava domes are formed when viscous magma slowly extrudes from a vent and piles up around it.

Silicon promotes rigidity in magmas because it has a 4 charge and forms multiple bonds with other elements.

The 1.8 x 2.5 km crater formed during the catastrophic 1956 eruption when the summit of the volcano collapsed, producing a debris avalanche and lateral blast that swept to the east.

This 1980's view from the SW shows the outer flanks of the pre-1956 volcano in the foreground.

The low ridge cutting across the middle of the photo is the rim of the pre-1982 crater.Merapi's historical eruptions have been characterized by repeated growth and collapse of the summit lava dome, periodically producing pyroclastic flows that have affected populated areas on the volcano's western and southern flanks. Photo by Ruska Hadian, 1993 (Volcanological Survey of Indonesia).Cerro Sincholagua (left) and Loma la Marca (right) are the southernmost of a group of lava domes pre-dating the formation of Pululagua's caldera.The Santiaguito dome began growing in 1922 in a large crater formed on the SW flank of Santa María volcano during a powerful explosive eruption in 1902.Dome growth has been continuous since 1922 and has produced a composite, elongated dome more than 3 km long.

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